What are the Symptoms of Asthma in Children?
Child asthma or allergic bronchitis manifests itself with recurrent cough, wheezing, difficulty in breathing. Generally, attacks can occur due to upper respiratory infections. These episodes are repetitive, the bronchial relaxant medication realeses the complaints, but after a while, an attack may appear again. Apart from the infection, smoking, mold / moisture, chemical smells, and air pollution may trigger the disease.
What Causes Asthma in Children?
It is known that asthma is 90% allergic in childhood. For this reason, “Allergic bronchitis” is often used synonymously with “Child Asthma”. Allergy-Asthma is a genetic disease. When mother or father has allergy-asthma, the risk of disease increases in children. House allergens, such as dust, mold fungi, litter of animals such as cats and dogs can cause an allergic reaction in the bronchi. This allergic reaction develops an extreme sensitivity in the bronchi. External factors, which doesn't have a direct contact wiht people can cause narrowing in the sensitive airway.
How Does Asthma Develop in Children?
It is determined that most children diagnosed with asthma experience symptoms at the age of two. In the early years, the main stimulus of cough and wheezing is upper respiratory tract infections that develop with viruses. At this age, the development of the lungs has not been completed yet, air canals are narrow, cartilage tissue is low cause recurrent bronchial narrowing. After completion of the development of the lungs at the age of four or five, clinical improvement is observed in many children who show signs of asthma at an early age. A group of patients who do not improve and some of the children diagnosed with late asthma also in the early period of in adolescence. In general, approximately 60% patients diagnosed with asthma in childhood, recover during adolescence. Healing is generally possible for non-allergic conditions. Some of the recovered cases may start to show symptoms of disease again in middle age. Those with allergic asthma have a lower recovery rate on their own. With allergy vaccine treatment, the rate of recovery increases to 90%.
How is Asthma Recognized in Children?
The best diagnostic tool in diagnosing asthma in children is history. Worsening of cough at night, wheezing and / or shortness of breath symptoms strongly indicates asthma. Coughing that continues for about 30 minutes after bedtime or in the morning and responds positively to bronchial medications can be considered as asthma unless otherwise said.
How to Evaluate Lung Functions in Children?
Measuring lung function for asthma is a test used in both diagnosis and evaluation of response to treatment. In the respiratory functions measured by spirometry, the comparison with healthy individuals and people with asthma during difficulty in breathing and the improvement of these values are evaluated with treatment. It is not necessary to do it in every patient diagnosed with asthma if the disease responds to treatment. It can be evaluated when the diagnose isn't certain or when it doesn't responding to treatment.
How is Allergy Diagnosed in Children?
Allergy skin tests are used to determine which substance may cause allergy in a child. In the skin test applied by the method of pricking to the arm surface, an evaluation is made according to the severity of the redness and blistering of the skin, and it is determined what the patient is allergic to. For those who are under 3, with widespread allergic eczema, who use anti-histaminic medication and who have anti-histamine-containing drugs, skin dermatitis called dermografismus, specific immunoglobulin E can be used.
How is Asthma Treated in Children?
As with all allergic diseases, first step of the treatment in allergic bronchitis or pediatric asthma is to stay away from the subtance that triggers the allergy. It is possible to reduce the symptoms of disease and hypersensitivity in the bronchi significantly with environmental measures to be taken together with appropriate recommendations. In patients where environmental precautions are not sufficient and drug treatment is deemed appropriate. These can be divided into "relieving medicines" that have the ability to relief the bronchi and "controlling medicines" that reduce the excessive bronchial sensitivity caused by allergic inflammation.